♦ Soy Foods have been a staple source of healthy protein for centuries and studies in China [β] have shown the wide ranging protective and therapeutic health benefits gained by consuming Soy Milk, Textured Soy Protein, Tempeh, Natto and Tofu.
• See two bioavailability studies here: [α][γ]
Soy foods and their flavones have been maliciously maligned with false allegations of feminizing effects on men by fake studies paid for by the Meat and Poultry industries to eliminate a healthy competitor since their own products are decidedly unhealthy and laced with feminizing hormones and pathogenic levels antibiotics.
• Here are studies which roundly debunk these spurious allegations: [Δ][ε]
♦ Following is a list of the therapeutic and prophylactic properties of Soy Foods and their associated 'active ingredients of Isoflavones:
- All-Cause Mortality/Cancers 
- Breast Cancer protective 
- Bone density improvement 
- Breathlessness, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 
- Coronary Heart Disease protective 
- Cholesterol lowering 
- Kidney function improvement, protective 
- Lung Cancer protective 
- Menopausal adverse effects protective 
- Menopausal Hot Flushes protective 
- Osteoporosis prevention, Bone density improvement 
- Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) 
- Prostate, Bladder, Urinary Tract protective 
- Prostate Cancer protective 
- Stroke protective 
- Uterine Cancer protective 
- Vaginal atrophy protective 
• There are many hundreds more studies confirming the cited findings here.
♦ List of Isoflavones in Soy Foods in mg/100g:
- [α] Factors affecting the bioavailability of soy isoflavones in humans after ingestion of physiologically relevant levels from different soy foods
The precise role that isoflavones play in the health-related effects of soy foods, and their potential for adverse effects are controversial. This may be due in part to a lack of basic knowledge regarding their bioavailability and metabolism, particularly as it relates to the soy source.
In the current study of healthy adults we examined the effect of age, gender, and the food matrix on the bioavailability of isoflavones for both the aglycon and glucoside forms that are naturally present in 3 different soy foods:
• Soy Milk
• Textured Vegetable Protein
Serum isoflavone concentrations in all individuals and groups increased rapidly after the ingestion of each soy food; as expected, genistein concentrations exceeded daidzein concentrations in serum.
However, soy milk was absorbed faster and peak levels of isoflavones were attained earlier than with the other soy foods.
PMID: 16365057 DOI: 10.1093/jn/136.1.45
- [β] ASSOCIATIONS OF DIET AND DISEASE: A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF HEALTH CHARACTERISTICS IN CHINA
T. Colin Campbell, PhD Jacob Gould Schurman Professor of Nutritional Biochemistry
- [γ] Bioavailability of isoflavones from soy products in equol producers and non-producers in Japanese women
The bioavailability of daidzein following the consumption of
• Tofu: 66.9%
• Natto: 45.2%
• Soy Milk: 65.7%
• Soy Isoflavone Supplement: 57.9%
were 66.9%, 45.2%, 65.7%, and 57.9%, respectively, and the bioavailability of genistein following the consumption of these soy products were 33.7%, 24.4%, 31.2%, and 17.7%, respectively.
- [Δ] Soybean isoflavone exposure does not have feminizing effects on men: a critical examination of the clinical evidence.
To critically evaluate the clinical evidence, and when not available, the animal data, most relevant to concerns that isoflavone exposure in the form of supplements or soy foods has feminizing effects on men.
Medline literature review and cross-reference of published data.
In contrast to the results of some rodent studies, findings from a recently published meta analysis and subsequently published studies show that neither isoflavone supplements nor isoflavone-rich soy affect total or free testosterone (T) levels.
Similarly, there is essentially no evidence from the nine identified clinical studies that isoflavone exposure affects circulating estrogen levels in men.
Clinical evidence also indicates that isoflavones have no effect on sperm or semen parameters.
Finally, findings from animal studies suggesting that isoflavones increase the risk of erectile dysfunction are not applicable to men, because of differences in isoflavone metabolism between rodents and humans and the excessively high amount of isoflavones to which the animals were exposed.
The intervention data indicate that isoflavones do not exert feminizing effects on men at intake levels equal to and even considerably higher than are typical for Asian males.
Fertil Steril. 2010 May 1;93(7):2095-104. Epub 2010 Apr 8. PMID: 20378106
- [ε] Soy intake and urinary sex hormone levels in preschool Japanese children.
The authors investigated whether soy intake is associated with sex steroid levels in Japanese children.
This cross-sectional study was conducted in autumn 2006.
Subjects were substantially healthy preschoolers, 230 boys and 198 girls, aged 3-6 years.
In the analysis of covariance for sex steroids after adjustments for age and body mass index, soy intake was significantly negatively related to estrone and estradiol in boys and positively related to testosterone and 5-androstene-3β,17α diol in girls.
Isoflavone had a significant tendency to be negatively associated with estradiol (E2 Estrogen, female sex hormone) in boys and to be positively associated with testosterone in girls (important hormone for girls - although at lower levels than for boys).
Total energy intake was not associated with any sex steroids in boys or girls.
These results suggest that soy intake might affect the secretion or metabolism of sex steroids in childhood and that the effects might differ by sex.
Am J Epidemiol. 2011 Mar 22. Epub 2011 Mar 22. PMID: 21427172
-  Soy isoflavones prevent bone resorption and loss, a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Osteoporosis is a common bone disease characterized by reduced bone mass resulting from continuous bone resorption.
Consumption of soy isoflavones caused significant improvement in BMD, Bone Mineral Density of lumbar spine (mean difference (MD) = 0.76%; 95% CI: 0.09, 1.42%; = 0.03), hip (MD = 0.22%; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.42%; = 0.04), and femoral neck (MD = 2.27%; 95% CI: 1.22, 3.31%; < 0.001).
Subgroup analysis showed that in all 3 sites, the improvement was significant in normal weight subjects and interventions longer than a year,
Subgroup analysis of bone markers showed that in overweight/obese individuals and dosages <90 mg/day, isoflavones are more effective.
Soy isoflavones prevent osteoporosis-related bone loss in any weight status or treatment duration.
They increase BMD in normal weight subjects and diminish bone resorption in overweight/obese individuals.
Although bone resorption may be decelerated over short-term isoflavone consumption, periods longer than a year are probably needed to affect BMD.
Isoflavones also appear benefits on bone in any dose or subjects' ethnicity.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2019 Jul 10:1-15. Epub 2019 Jul 10. PMID: 31290343
-  Soy intake is associated with lower lung cancer risk: results from a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.
Although several in vitro and animal in vivo studies have suggested that soy or soy isoflavones may exert inhibitory effects on lung carcinogenesis, epidemiologic studies have reported inconclusive results on the association between soy intake and lung cancer.
The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate whether an association exists between soy and lung cancer in epidemiologic studies.
A total of 11 epidemiologic studies that consisted of 8 case-control and 3 prospective cohort studies were included.
A significantly inverse association was shown between soy intake and lung cancer with an overall RR (Relative Risk) of 0.77 (95% CI: 0.65, 0.92).
Findings were slightly different when analyses were restricted to 5 high-quality studies (RR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.99).
In a subgroup meta-analysis, a statistically significant protective effect of soy consumption was observed in women (RR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.93), never smokers (RR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.76), and Asian populations (RR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.98).
Our findings indicate that the consumption of soy food is associated with lower lung cancer risk.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec ;94(6):1575-83. Epub 2011 Nov 9. PMID: 22071712
-  Soy, isoflavones, and breast cancer risk in Japan.
We evaluated the relationship between isoflavone consumption and breast cancer risk among women in the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study on Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases (JPHC Study).
Consumption of miso soup and isoflavones was inversely associated with the risk of breast cancer.
Compared with those in the lowest quartile of isoflavone intake, the adjusted RRs for breast cancer for women in the second, third, and highest quartiles were 0.76 (95% CI = 0.47 to 1.2), 0.90 (95% CI = 0.56 to 1.5), and 0.46 (95% CI = 0.25 to 0.84), respectively (P(trend) =.043).
The inverse association was stronger in postmenopausal women (P(trend) =.006). CONCLUSION:
In a population-based, prospective cohort study in Japan, frequent miso soup and isoflavone consumption was associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003 Jun 18;95(12):906-13. PMID: 12813174
-  Combined inhibitory effects of soy isoflavones and curcumin on the production of prostate-specific antigen.
Sustained chronic inflammation in the prostate promotes prostate carcinogenesis.
Since an elevated level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) per se reflects the presence of inflammation in the prostate, intervention to improve the PSA value might potentially have beneficial effects for the prevention of the development of prostate cancer.
Isoflavones and curcumin (Turmeric) have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties.
The production of PSA were markedly decreased by the combined treatment of isoflavones and curcumin in prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP.
The expression of the androgen receptor was also suppressed by the treatment.
In clinical trials, PSA levels decreased in the patients group with PSA>or= 10 treated with supplement containing isoflavones and curcumin (P = 0.01).
Our results indicated that isoflavones and curcumin could modulate serum PSA levels. Curcumin presumably synergizes with isoflavones to suppress PSA production in prostate cells through the anti-androgen effects.
Prostate. 2010 Jul 1;70(10):1127-33. PMID: 20503397
-  Direct comparison of dietary portfolio vs statin on C-reactive protein.
To compare the efficacy of a dietary combination (portfolio) of cholesterol-lowering foods vs a statin in reducing C-reactive protein (CRP) (body-response to inflammation) as a biomarker of inflammation linked to increased cardiovascular disease risk.
In all, 34 hyperlipidemic subjects completed three 1-month treatments as outpatients in random order: a very low-saturated fat diet (control);
the same diet with 20 mg lovastatin (statin);
and a diet high in
• plant sterols (1.0 g/1000 kcal),
• soy protein (21.4 g/1000 kcal),
• viscous fibers (9.8 g/1000 kcal),
• almonds (14 g/1000 kcal)
A combination of cholesterol-lowering foods reduced C-reactive protein to a similar extent as the starting dose of a first-generation statin.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jul;59(7):851-60. PMID: 15900306
-  The effect of a soy rich diet on the vaginal epithelium in postmenopause: a randomized double blind trial.
A traditional asiatic phytoestrogen-rich diet is associated with a lower incidence of estrogen-dependent cancers and clinical consequences of postmenopausal estrogen deficiency.
First Wilcox in 1990, showed an increase of the vaginal cell maturation with phytoestrogens on postmenopausal women, but this has not been confirmed in some subsequent studies.
In this study, we analyzed the effects of a 6-month soy-rich diet on the vaginal epithelium of asymptomatic postmenopausal women in a randomized clinical trial.
The karyopycnotic index (KI) increased significantly in the diet group and in the HRT group but not in the control group.
The maturation value (MV) had an identical trend to the KI. CONCLUSION: We conclude that a soy rich diet is efficacious in increasing the maturation indices of vaginal cells.
This effect could be a useful marker of the efficacy of a dietary intervention with phytoestrogen rich foods, and should be considered during preventive interventions against menopausal effects and vaginal atrophy.
Vascul Pharmacol. 2008 Jan;48(1):14-20. Epub 2007 Nov 13. PMID: 12927310
-  Soy food intake and breast cancer survival.
Soy foods are rich in isoflavones, a major group of phytoestrogens that have been hypothesized to reduce the risk of breast cancer.
During the median follow-up of 3.9 years (range, 0.5-6.2 years), 444 deaths and 534 recurrences or breast cancer-related deaths were documented in 5033 surgically treated breast cancer patients.
Soy food intake, as measured by either soy protein or soy isoflavone intake, was inversely associated with mortality and recurrence.
The hazard ratio associated with the highest quartile of soy protein intake was 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-0.92) for total mortality and 0.68 (95% CI, 0.54-0.87) for recurrence compared with the lowest quartile of intake.
Among women with breast cancer, soy food consumption was significantly associated with decreased risk of death and recurrence.
JAMA. 2009 Dec 9;302(22):2437-43. PMID: 19996398
-  The association between isoflavone and lower urinary tract symptoms in elderly men.
The objective of the present study is to explore the association between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and dietary isoflavone in elderly men.
In a large prospective cohort of 2000 Chinese men, the association between dietary isoflavone and LUTS were studied using standardized structured questionnaires.
A total of 96.2 % of subjects reported some consumption of genistein, glycitein or daidzein.
In ordinal multinominal logistic regression, subjects with dietary total isoflavone of more than 5.1 mg were significantly less likely to suffer from more severe LUTS
(dietary intake from 5.1 to 9.5 mg: OR 0.59; 95 % CI 0.44, 0.80;
from 9.6 to 14.3 mg: OR 0.81; 95 % CI 0.61, 1.09;
from 14.4 to 21.7 mg: OR 0.68; 95 % CI 0.51, 0.92; 21.8 mg
and above: OR 0.73; 95 % CI 0.54, 0.98) after adjustment for covariates.
In this cross-sectional study, we showed a strong inverse association between dietary intake of isoflavone and the risk of LUTS.
Br J Nutr. 2007 Dec;98(6):1237-42. Epub 2007 Jul 19. PMID: 17640419
-  Effects of genistein on hot flushes in early postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind EPT- and placebo-controlled study.
We evaluated and compared the effects of the phytoestrogen genistein, (soy isoflavone) estrogen-progestogen therapy (EPT), and placebo on hot flushes and endometrial thickness in postmenopausal women.
By comparison with placebo, daily flushes reduced significantly by a mean of 22% (95% CI: -38 to -6.2; P<0.01) after 3 months,
by a mean of 29% (95% CI: -45 to -13; P<0.001) after 6 months,
and by a mean of 24% (95% CI: -43 to -5; P<0.01) after 12 months
of genistein treatment.
Flush score decreased by a mean of 53% (95% CI: -79 to -26; P<0.001) after 3 months, by a mean of 56% (95% CI: -83 to -28; P<0.001) after 6 months, and by a mean of 54% (95% CI: -74 to -33; P<0.001) after 12 months of EPT, as compared with placebo. No side effect was observed on the uterus of the participants.
The present study confirms that genistein might have positive effects on hot flushes without a negative impact on endometrial thickness and suggests a future role of this phytoestrogen as a strategically therapeutic alternative in the management of postmenopausal symptoms.
Menopause. 2004 Jul-Aug;11(4):400-4. PMID: 15243277
-  Breast safety and efficacy of genistein aglycone for postmenopausal bone loss: a follow-up study.
Genistein aglycone improves bone metabolism in women.
After 36 months, genistein did not significantly change mammographic breast density or endometrial thickness, BRCA1 and BRCA2 expression was preserved, whereas sister chromatid exchange was reduced compared with placebo.
Bone mineral density increases were greater with genistein for both femoral neck and lumbar spine compared to placebo.
Genistein also significantly reduced pyridinoline, as well as serum carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide and soluble receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand while increasing bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, IGF-I, and osteoprotegerin levels.
There were no differences in discomfort or adverse events between groups. CONCLUSIONS:
After 3 yr of treatment, genistein exhibited a promising safety profile with positive effects on bone formation in a cohort of osteopenic, postmenopausal women.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Dec;93(12):4787-96. Epub 2008 Sep 16. PMID: 18796517
-  Soy consumption and risk of COPD and respiratory symptoms: a case-control study in Japan.
To investigate the relationship between soy consumption, COPD (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) risk and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, a case-control study was conducted in Japan.
A significant reduction in COPD risk was evident for highest versus lowest quartile of daily intake of total soybean products, with adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.392, 95% CI 0.194-0.793, p for trend 0.001.
Similar decreases in COPD risk were associated with frequent and higher intake of soy foods such as tofu and bean sprouts, whereas respiratory symptoms were inversely associated with high consumption of soy foods, especially for breathlessness (OR 0.989, 95% CI 0.982-0.996).
Increasing soy consumption was associated with a decreased risk of COPD and breathlessness.
Respir Res. 2009;10:56. Epub 2009 Jun 26. PMID: 19558645
-  Isoflavone intake and risk of lung cancer: a prospective cohort study in Japan.
We investigated the association between isoflavone intake and lung cancer incidence.
During 11 y (671,864 person-years) of follow-up, we documented 481 male and 178 female lung cancer cases.
In men we found an inverse association between isoflavone intake and risk of lung cancer in never smokers (n = 13,051; multivariate HR in the highest compared with the lowest quartile of isoflavone intake: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.90; P for trend = 0.024) but not in current or past smokers.
In a large-scale, population-based, prospective study in Japan, isoflavone intake was associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer in never smokers.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jan 13. Epub 2010 Jan 13. PMID: 20071645
-  Soy consumption and mortality in Hong Kong: proxy-reported case-control study of all older adult deaths in 1998.
This study investigates the relation between soy consumption and mortality in a population-based case-control study in Hong Kong of all adult deaths in 1998.
The adjusted odds ratios for all-cause mortality for soy consumption 4 or more times a week compared with less than once a month were 0.77 (95% CI: 0.62, 0.95) for men and 0.66 (0.54, 0.81) for women.
Mortality from lung cancer (males P = 0.02, females P = 0.02), colorectal cancer (males P = 0.07, females P<0.001), stomach cancer (males P = 0.04, females P = 0.03), female breast cancer (P = 0.02) and ischemic heart disease (males P<0.001, females P = 0.002) was inversely associated with soy consumption.
Our study suggests that maintaining traditional levels of soy consumption could be protective for some chronic diseases in China.
Prev Med. 2006 Jul;43(1):20-6. Epub 2006 May 2. PMID: 16631248
-  Serum prostate-specific antigen but not testosterone levels decrease in a randomized soy intervention among men.
Low prostate cancer incidence and high soy intake in Asian countries suggest a possible protective effect of soy foods against prostate cancer.
The goal of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of a randomized, crossover soy trial among men and to investigate the effects of daily soy intake on serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and testosterone levels.
We randomized 24 men to a high or a low soy diet for 3 months.
After a 1-month washout period, the men crossed over to the other treatment.
During the high soy diet, dietary isoflavone intake and urinary isoflavone excretion increased significantly as compared to the low soy diet.
A 14% decline in serum PSA levels (P=0.10), but no change in testosterone (P=0.70), was observed during the high soy diet in contrast to the low soy diet. CONCLUSION:
The high adherence as shown by three measures of compliance in this pilot trial demonstrated the feasibility of an intervention based on soy foods among free-living men.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 Dec;60(12):1423-9. Epub 2006 Jun 14. PMID: 16775579
-  Soy consumption reduces risk of ischemic stroke: a case-control study in southern china.
Experimental studies have suggested that soybean products may protect against ischemic stroke.
Increased consumptions of dried soybean, tofu, soymilk and total soy foods were associated with reduced risks of ischemic stroke (brain blood clot) after adjusting for confounding factors.
The corresponding adjusted odds ratios for the highest versus lowest level (<50 g) of intake were
0.20 (95% confidence interval = 0.09-0.48),
0.56 (0.36-0.89), 0.18 (0.06-0.51) and
0.23 (0.14-0.39), with significant dose-response relationships observed. CONCLUSION:
The results provided evidence of inverse association between habitual soy food consumption and the risk of ischemic stroke for Chinese adults.
Neuroepidemiology. 2009;33(2):111-6. Epub 2009 May 30. PMID: 19494552
-  Interaction of soy food and tea consumption with CYP19A1 genetic polymorphisms in the development of endometrial cancer.
Certain polyphenols inhibit the activity of aromatase, a critical enzyme in estrogen synthesis that is coded by the CYP19A1 gene.
Consumption of polyphenol-rich foods and beverages, thus, may interact with CYP19A1 genetic polymorphisms in the development of endometrial cancer (Uterine Cancer).
Higher intake of soy foods and tea consumption were both inversely associated with the risk of endometrial cancer, with odds ratios of 0.8 (95% confidence interval: 0.6, 1.0) for the highest versus the lowest tertiles of intake of soy and 0.8 (95% confidence interval: 06, 0.9) for ever tea consumption.
The association of single nucleotide polymorphisms rs1065779, rs752760, and rs1870050 with endometrial cancer was modified by tea consumption (p(interaction) < 0.05) but not by soy isoflavone intake.
The authors' findings suggest that tea polyphenols may modify the effect of CYP19A1 genetic polymorphisms on the development of endometrial cancer.
Acta Paediatr. 2009 Jan;98(1):127-31. Epub 2008 Aug 4. PMID: 17827443
-  Soy food consumption is associated with lower risk of coronary heart disease in Chinese women.
Soy food intake has been shown to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors.
We examined the relationship between soy food intake and incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) among participants in the Shanghai Women's Health Study, a population-based prospective cohort study of approximately 75,000 Chinese women aged 40-70 y
There was a clear monotonic dose-response relationship between soy food intake and risk of total CHD (P for trend = 0.003) with an adjusted relative risk (RR) of 0.25 (95% CI, 0.10-0.63) observed for women in the highest vs. the lowest quartile of total soy protein intake.
The inverse association was more pronounced for nonfatal myocardial infarction (RR = 0.14; 95% CI, 0.04-0.48 for the highest vs. the lowest quartile of intake; P for trend = 0.001).
This study provides, for the first time, direct evidence that soy food consumption may reduce the risk of CHD in women.
J Nutr. 2003 Sep;133(9):2874-8. PMID: 12949380
-  Adolescent and adult soy food intake and breast cancer risk: results from the Shanghai Women's Health Study.
Soy food is a rich source of isoflavones--a class of phytoestrogens that has both antiestrogenic and anticarcinogenic properties.
The objective was to evaluate the association of adolescent and adult soy food intake with breast cancer risk in a cohort of 73,223 Chinese women who participated in the Shanghai Women's Health Study.
The multivariate-adjusted relative risks (RRs) for the upper intake quintile compared with the lowest quintile were
0.41 (95% CI: 0.25, 0.70) for soy protein intake and
0.44 (95% CI: 0.26, 0.73) for isoflavone intake.
High intake of soy foods during adolescence was also associated with a reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer (RR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.97).
Women who consumed a high amount of soy foods consistently during adolescence and adulthood had a substantially reduced risk of breast cancer.
This large, population-based, prospective cohort study provides strong evidence of a protective effect of soy food intake against premenopausal breast cancer.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jun;89(6):1920-6. Epub 2009 Apr 29. PMID: 19403632
-  Beneficiary effect of dietary soy protein on lowering plasma levels of lipid and improving kidney function in type II diabetes with nephropathy.
Heart and renal diseases are two major problems in diabetic patients.
Hyperlipidemia is one of the main risk factors of cardiovascular complications in diabetes.
The type of protein consumed also affects the changes in renal blood flow, glomerular resistance and renal function in these patients.
There were 10 men and four women whose mean (s.d.) of weight was 70.6 (10.3) kg. Significant reductions were seen in total cholesterol (P<0.01), triglyceride (P<0.002) and LDL-c (P<0.04), urinary urea nitrogen and proteinuria (P<0.001) after soy vs animal protein consumption.
We also saw a favorable effect on renal function.
Soy inclusion in the diet can modify the risk factors of heart disease and improve kidney function in these patients.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003 Oct;57(10):1292-4. PMID: 14506491
-  Effect of consumption of soy isoflavones on behavioural, somatic and affective symptoms in women with premenstrual syndrome.
Up to 80 % of the Western female population experience premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Long-term pharmacological therapy is unacceptable to most women, and is not warranted for moderate symptoms.
Specific premenstrual symptoms, headache (F(2,32) 4.10, P=0.026) and breast tenderness (F(2,32) 4.59, P=0.018), were reduced from baseline after soy IF (isoflavones ), but not milk protein placebo.
Cramps (F(2,32) 4.15, P=0.025) and swelling (F(2,32) 4.64, P=0.017) were significantly lower after active treatment compared with placebo.
The present study showed that ISP (isolated soya protein) containing IF may have potential to reduce specific premenstrual symptoms via non-classical actions.
Br J Nutr. 2005 May;93(5):731-9. PMID: 15975174
-  Soy protein intake, cardiorenal indices, and C-reactive protein in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy: a longitudinal randomized clinical trial.
Several short-term trials on the effect of soy consumption on cardiovascular risks are available, but little evidence exists regarding the impact of long-term soy protein consumption among type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy.
Soy protein consumption significantly affected cardiovascular risks such as fasting plasma glucose (mean change in the soy protein versus control groups: -18 +/- 3 vs. 11 +/- 2 mg/dl; P = 0.03), total cholesterol (-23 +/- 5 vs. 10 +/- 3 mg/dl; P = 0.01), LDL cholesterol (-20 +/- 5 vs. 6 +/- 2 mg/dl; P = 0.01), and serum triglyceride (-24 +/- 6 vs. -5 +/- 2 mg/dl; P = 0.01) concentrations.
Serum CRP levels were significantly decreased by soy protein intake compared with those in the control group (1.31 +/- 0.6 vs. 0.33 +/- 0.1 mg/l; P = 0.02). Significant improvements were also seen in proteinuria (-0.15 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.02 +/- 0.01 g/day; P = 0.001)
and urinary creatinine (-1.5 +/- 0.9 vs. 0.6 +/- 0.3 mg/dl, P = 0.01) by consumption of soy protein.
Longitudinal soy protein consumption significantly affected cardiovascular risk factors and kidney-related biomarkers among type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy.
Diabetes Res. 1984 Nov;1(4):201-7. PMID: 18184902
-  Tofu and risk of breast cancer in Asian-Americans.
Breast cancer rates among Asian-Americans are lower than those of US whites but considerably higher than rates prevailing in Asia.
It is suspected that migration to the US brings about a change in endocrine function among Asian women, although reasons for this change remain obscure.
The high intake of soy in Asia and its reduced intake among Asian-Americans has been suggested to partly explain the increase of breast cancer rates in Asian-Americans.
After adjustment for age, ethnicity and study area, intake of tofu was more than twice as high among Asian-American women born in Asia (62 times per year) compared to those born in the US (30 times per year).
Among migrants, intake of tofu decreased with years of residence in the US.
Risk of breast cancer decreased with increasing frequency of intake of tofu after adjustment for age, study area, ethnicity, and migration history;
the adjusted OR associated with each additional serving per week was 0.85 (95% CI = 0.74-0.99).
The protective effect of high tofu intake was observed in pre- and postmenopausal women.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1996 Nov;5(11):901-6. PMID: 8922298