Why Zinc is so important for your health!

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Rebel Lady
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Why Zinc is so important for your health!

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♦ Zinc is one of the most important trace element found throughout the body.

It facilitates a myriad of body functions and is essential for:
  • The functioning of over 300 Enzymes
  • Bodily growth
    ♦ Human Cell

    Zn requires an Ionophore to
    traverse the Plasma Membrane

  • Cell repair
  • Essential for the efficient workings and strengthening of the Immune System.
  • Blocks the replication and growth of viruses
  • Healthy Skin
  • Prevents or slows Macular Degeneration
  • Aiding the healing of Wounds and Ulcers
  • Can be useful in treating Diarrhea
  • Improving the actions of Immune Cells such as:
    • B cells
    • T cells
    • White Blood Cells called Neutrophils,
    • Natural Killer Cells (NK) which act as the body’s Defence Force, attacking infections and foreign intruders
  • Zinc is an essential component of every Protocol to fight Influenza, Covid-19 infections and for Detoxifying so called Covid Vaccines!

Zinc is found and facilitates functions in every cell of the body; though as a non-fat-soluble element it is not able to easily cross the fat-based cell membrane.
It therefore requires a so called Zinc Ionophore and Zinc binding-protein.
Zinc binding-proteins are found in the membranes of cells to facilitate the inflow and outflow of Zinc across the Cell Membrane.

♦ Ionophores:
Ionophore Source
Epigallocatechin EGCG Green Tea
Quercetin; Flavonoid Antioxidant Tomatoes, green leafy Vegetables, Berries, Broccoli, etc
Zincophorin Isolate of Streptomyces Griseus Bacterium
Pyrithione; Organosulfur compound Persian Shallot
Hydroxychloroquine/Chloroquine Pharmaceutical Medication
Hinokitiol Cupressaceae Trees

♦ Nutritional sources of Zinc:
Food Serving mg Zinc % RDA of 11mg
Oysters 6 medium 32 mg 291%
Beef 100 gms 4.8mg 44%
Poultry 85 gms 2.5mg 22%
Lentils, Chickpeas Beans etc 1 cup/200 gms 2.5mg 22%
Sesame Seeds 1oz/28 gms 2 mg 13%
Brown Rice 1 Cup cooked 1.21mg 11%
Cashew Nuts 1oz/28 gms 1.2 mg 11%
Full Fat Milk 1 Cup 1mg 9%
Potatoes, Sweet Potatoes 1 Potato 1mg 9%
Eggs 1 large 0.65mg 6%
Green Beans 1 Cup 128gms 0.3mg 2%
Kale, Green Leafy Vegetables 1 Cup 130gms 0.3mg 2%

♦ Scientific evidence for the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of adequate serum Zinc & supplementation:
  • Acne (vulgaris) [13]
  • Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infections (in Thai Children) [33]
  • ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) [27][31]
  • Ageing & Longevity [5][6][40][41]
  • Anemia [26]
  • Asthma [1][25]
  • Bone Fracture Healing [34]
  • Brain function; Hepatic Encephalopathy [9]
  • Cancer [7]
  • Coeliac/Celiac Disease [18]
  • Common Cold/Influenza [22]
  • Covid-19/Influenza [4]
  • Coronary Heart Disease [16]
  • Depression [8]
  • Dengue / Hemorrhagic Fever [11]
  • Dermatitis (seborrheic) [19]
  • Diabetes; Hyperglycemia [2][3]
  • Diarrhea; acute in children [32]
  • EMF protective on Thyroid [20]
  • Goitre/Thyroid [21]
  • Growth rate in children [12][15]
  • Heart Failure [28]
  • Immune System [35]
  • Impotence [36]
  • Laryngeal Cancer [17]
  • Malaria [23]
  • Macular Degeneration (Age-related) Vision/Eyesight [24]
  • Mental & Physical Development in Children [38]
  • Osteoporosis [42]
  • Pneumonia [39]
  • Prostate Cancer [37]
  • Sperm count [10]
  • Tinnitus (noise, ringing in the ears) [14]
  • Testosterone levels [29][30]
⛧ This is but a small selection out of hundreds of research papers examining the efficacy of Zinc as a prophylactic and therapeutic agent and numerous diseases and conditions.

Symptoms of Zinc deficiency:
  • Loss of taste or smell
  • Poor appetite
  • Growth retardation
  • Delayed sexual maturation
  • Depression Anxiety
  • Impaired Immunity
  • Poor wound healing
  • Diarrhoea
  • Hair loss

Individuals at risk of Zinc deficiency are people with:
  • Digestive disorders
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • After gastrointestinal surgery
  • Chronic liver disease
  • Kidney disease
  • prolonged Diarrhea
  • Skin burns
  • Sepsis/Septicemia/Blood poisoning; any cause

The official RDA for Zinc are:
Person RDA not exceeding
Babies to 6 months 2mg 4mg
7–12 months 3mg 5mg
1–3 years 3mg 7mg
4–8 years 5mg 12mg
9–13 years 8mg 23mg
14–18 years 10mg 34mg
Adults 19- 8mg 40mg
Pregnant Women 11mg 40mg
Lactating Women 12mg 40mg

Zinc supplementation taken long term and in high doses can cause copper deficiency. People with low Copper levels might experience neurological problems, such as numbness and weakness in the arms and legs.
It is therefore advised to take a balanced Zinc supplement containing Cu at a ratio of 15 Zn/1 Cu!
Symptoms of excess Zinc include:
  • Nausea, vomiting
  • Poor appetite
  • Abdominal pain or cramping
  • Headaches
  • Diarrhoea

♦ Measurement of bodily Zinc levels.
The determination of bodily Zinc levels is not straight forward, but can be measured in various ways:
in plasma, lymphocytes, neutrophils, hair, erythrocytes, and in urinary zinc excretion.

Each one can provide a rough indication, but not a definitive answer by itself.
The Zn:Cu ratio is also a useful indicator.

♦ References
  • [1] Lower circulating zinc and selenium levels are associated with an increased risk of asthma: evidence from a meta-analysis.
    A total of twenty-six studies for Zn and forty studies for Se were included in the meta-analysis.
    The overall analyses identified that asthma patients had lower Zn (SMD = -0·40; 95 % CI -0·77, -0·03; I2 = 94·1 %) and Se (SMD = -0·32; 95 % CI -0·48, -0·17; I2 = 90·9 %) levels in serum or plasma compared with healthy controls.
    After removing the studies that contributed to the heterogeneity, the pooled SMD were -0·26 (95 % CI -0·40, -0·13; I2 = 37·42 %) for Zn and -0·06 (95 % CI -0·13, 0·02; I2 = 43·54 %) for Se.
    Lower circulating Zn and Se levels might be associated with an increased risk of asthma.
    Public Health Nutr. 2019 Nov 5:1-8. Epub 2019 Nov 5. PMID: 31685060

  • [2] Zinc and glycemic control: A meta-analysis of randomised placebo controlled supplementation trials in humans.
    Impaired zinc metabolism is prominent in chronic disorders including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Zinc has the potential to affect glucose homeostasis in animals and humans and hence impact the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    The significant albeit modest reduction in glucose concentrations and tendency for a decrease in HbA1c following zinc supplementation suggest that zinc may contribute to the management of hyperglycemia in individuals with chronic metabolic disease.
    J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2012 Nov 5. Epub 2012 Nov 5. PMID: 23137858

  • [3] The influence of zinc supplementation on metabolic status in gestational diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies.
    Zinc supplementation has emerged as an important approach to improve metabolic status in gestational diabetes.
    Five RCTs involving 263 patients are included in the meta-analysis.
    Compared with control intervention for gestational diabetes, zinc supplementation is associated with significantly reduced FPG (std. MD = -0.52; 95% CI = -0.82 to -0.21; = .0008), insulin (std. MD = -0.68; 95% CI = -0.98 to -0.37; < .0001), HOMA-IR (std. MD = -0.77; 95% CI = -1.08 to -0.45;<.00001), and increased QUICKI (std. MD = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.28-0.89; = .0002) as well as zinc change (std. MD = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.58-1.21; < .00001),
    Zinc supplementation is effective to decrease FPG (fasting plasma glucose), insulin, HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance) and improve QUICKI (quantitative insulin sensitivity check index) in gestational diabetes
    J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2019 Sep 12:1-6. Epub 2019 Sep 12. PMID: 31438733

  • [4] 20-Week Study of Clinical Outcomes of Over-the-Counter COVID-19 Prophylaxis and Treatment.
    We present a 20-week study of our clinical experience with a multi-component over-the-counter (OTC) “core formulation” regimen used in a multiply exposed, high risk population. The OTC core supplementation formulations used include zinc and zinc ionophores; vitamins C, D3 and E; and l-lysine.
    While both groups were moderate in size, the difference between them in outcomes over the 20-week study period was large and stark:
    Just under 4% of the compliant test group presented flu-like symptoms, but none of the test group was COVID-positive;
    whereas 20% of the non-compliant control group presented flu-like symptoms,
    three-quarters of whom (15% overall of the control group) were COVID-positive.
    PMID: 34225463 PMCID: PMC8264737 DOI: 10.1177/2515690X211026193

  • [5] A moderate increase in dietary zinc reduces DNA strand breaks in leukocytes and alters plasma proteins without changing plasma zinc concentrations.
    TAZ (total absorbed zinc) increased with increased dietary zinc, but plasma zinc concentrations and EZP (exchangeable zinc pool) size were unchanged.
    Erythrocyte and leukocyte zinc concentrations and zinc transporter expressions were not altered.
    However, leukocyte DNA strand breaks decreased with increased dietary zinc, and the level of proteins involved in DNA repair and antioxidant and immune functions were restored after the dietary-zinc increase.
    A moderate 4-mg/d increase in dietary zinc, similar to that which would be expected from zinc-biofortified crops, improves zinc absorption but does not alter plasma zinc.
    • The repair of DNA strand breaks improves, as do serum protein concentrations that are associated with the DNA repair process.
    PMID: 28003206 PMCID: PMC5267297 DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.116.135327

  • [6] Zinc and ageing: third Zincage conference
    The importance of Zn for optimal functioning of the immune system and antioxidant stress response is well documented. Zn homeostasis influences development and function of immune cells, activity of stress-related and antioxidant proteins [metallothioneins (MT), chaperones, ApoJ, Poly(ADP-Ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and Methionione Sulfoxide Reductase (Msr), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)], and helps to maintain genomic integrity and stability. During ageing, the intake of Zn decreases due to inadequate diet and/or intestinal malabsorption, contributing to frailty, general disability and increased incidence of age-related degenerative diseases (cancer, infections and atherosclerosis).
    • Zn, genetic background and longevity
    • Zn and oxidative stress
    Recent results obtained with Zn supplementation in elderly subjects are encouraging.
    Many factors were found to affect the individual response to Zn, such as general dietary habits, genotype, gender, drug usage and frailty.
    However, some progress in understanding how Zn can modulate oxidative stress responses and host defence to infection has been achieved and will hopefully be the subject of further scientific enquiry.
    Mocchegiani, E. Zinc and ageing: third Zincage conference. Immun Ageing 4, 5 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-4933-4-5

  • [7] An ecological study of cancer mortality rates including indices for dietary iron and zinc.
    Dietary iron and zinc affect the risk of cancer, with dietary iron generally correlated with increased risk and dietary zinc with reduced risk.
    However, zinc supplements have been found correlated with increased risk of cancer.
    The dietary zinc index was inversely correlated with 12 types of cancer, whereas the dietary iron index was directly correlated with 10 types of cancer which correlated with both iron directly and zinc inversely were
    bladder, breast, colon, esophageal, gastric, rectal cancer, and Hodgkin's lymphoma;
    those inversely with zinc only were
    laryngeal, nasopharyngeal, oral, skin and vulvar cancer.
    Solar UVB was inversely correlated with 10 of the 15 types of cancer for which the iron and/or zinc indices had significant correlations, the smoking and urban indices with nine, and the alcohol index with eight.
    Although there are mechanisms that explain why zinc should reduce the risk of cancer, whereas iron should increase the risk, these indices may represent the dietary sources of these nutrients, e.g. whole grains for zinc and red meat for iron, and other components of these dietary factors.
    PMID: 18630488

  • [8] Dietary Intake of Zinc was Inversely Associated with Depression.
    In this study, we found an inverse relationship between dietary intake of zinc and depression.
    The results persisted even after we controlled for several potential confounding variables related to depression symptoms, including age, sex, years of education, smoking status (current and past), and physical activity.
    The results of this study show that long-term intake of zinc may modulate symptoms of depression.
    Biol Trace Elem Res. 2011 Sep 20. Epub 2011 Sep 20. PMID: 21932045

  • [9] Efficacy of Zinc Supplement in Minimal hepatic Encephalopathy: A prospective, Randomized Controlled Study (Zinc-MHE Trial).

    BACKGROUND: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) in patients with cirrhosis of the liver has a negative impact on the quality of daily life by impairing attention, memory and visuomotor coordination, and resulting in cognitive decline. Ammonia is thought to be part of the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. Zinc is an essential trace element, one of the cofactor enzymes that is essential for the conversion of ammonia to urea.
    A significant improvement of HRQOL assessed by the SF-36 score was only seen in the zinc group (p<0.001).
    In the zinc supplement group, not only was an improvement in psychomotor performance reported, but quality of life was also improved, irrespective of baseline zinc level.
    Twelve weeks of zinc supplement in cirrhotic patients with MHE not only had a positive effect on psychomotor performance but also improved HRQOL irrespective to baseline zinc level.

    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2021 Sep 1 ;22(9):2879-2887. Epub 2021 Sep 1. PMID: 34582657

  • [10] Experimental zinc deficiency in man. Effect on testicular function.
    Dietary zinc intake was restricted (2.7 to 5.0 mg daily) for 24 to 40 weeks in five male volunteers.
    Their mean age was 57 years.
    Oligospermia (total sperm count less than 40 million per ejaculate) was induced in four out of five subjects.
    A decrease in the sperm count occurred during zinc restriction and the early phase of zinc repletion before body stores of zinc were restored to normal.
    The baseline sperm concentration and total sperm count per ejaculate in all five subjects dropped significantly (p<0.05) after zinc restriction and returned to normal 6 to 12 months after zinc supplementation.
    The decrease in sperm count coincided with decline in Leydig cell function and was reversed after zinc supplementation in low doses.
    Our study has demonstrated that dietary restriction of zinc can affect testicular function adversely.
    This effect of zinc deficiency, however, is a reversible process and can be corrected by proper supplementation with zinc.
    J Lab Clin Med. 1980 Sep ;96(3):544-50. PMID: 6772723

  • [11] Zinc deficiency in children with Dengue viral infection.
    Zinc deficiency is highly prevalent in low-income countries, with dramatic consequences to child health, in particular by impairing the immune system resulting in infection.
    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of zinc deficiency in Thai children who were admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of the dengue viral infection.
    The mean age was 7.3 years, of whom 56.3% were males. 11 (34.4%) patients were diagnosed with dengue hemorrhagic fever and the remaining had dengue fever.
    The prevalence of zinc deficiency was 46.7%, with boys having a higher risk of zinc deficiency than girls (OR=7.3: 95%CI: 1.5-36.6).
    Fever duration and length of hospital stay were longer in children with zinc deficiency compared to those who had normal levels
    Pediatr Rep. 2019 Feb 26 ;11(1):7386. Epub 2019 Feb 26. PMID: 30838119

  • [12] Oral Zinc Supplementation Positively Affects Linear Growth, But not Weight, in Children 6-24 Months of Age.
    Childhood zinc deficiency is a common problem in many developing countries where people rely mainly on plant based diets with low zinc contents. Zinc supplementation is one of the strategies to combat zinc deficiency and its consequences in children.
    Rural community health centers providing maternal and child care in two areas with moderate rates of malnutrition were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups, including 393 and 445 children 6-24 months of age, respectively.
    Children in both groups received routine iron and multivitamin or vitamin A and D supplements through PHC (primary health care) services.
    Mothers of children in the intervention group were asked to give a single dose of 5 ml/day zinc sulfate syrup (containing 5 mg elemental zinc) to their children for 3 months while children in the control group did not receive the supplement.
    Anthropometric measurements were performed at baseline and on a monthly basis in both groups.
    We found a 0.5 cm difference in the height increment in the intervention group as compared with the control (P<0.001). Zinc supplementation had no effect on weight increment of children.
    Oral zinc supplementation was found to be both practical and effective in increasing linear growth rate of children less than 2 years of age through PHC (primary health care).
    Int J Prev Med. 2014 Mar ;5(3):280-6. PMID: 24829711

  • [13] Oral zinc sulphate therapy in acne vulgaris: a double-blind trial.
    The effect of zinc sulphate and placebo was compared in a double-blind trial in 56 patients suffering from acne vulgaris.
    Serum vitamin A levels were studied in all, before and at the end of therapy, 29 patients received zinc sulphate 600 mg daily and 27 patients received placebo.
    Patients on placebo showed no improvement.
    After 12 weeks of treatment with zinc sulphate, 17 patients (58%) showed significant improvement.
    There was a statistically significant decrease in the number of papules, infiltrates and cysts.
    In zinc-treated cases there was statistically significant increase in serum vitamin A levels, while no change was found in the placebo group.
    Acta Derm Venereol. 1980;60(4):337-40. PMID: 6163281

  • [14] The role of zinc in the treatment of tinnitus.

    Blood zinc levels were measured. Frequency was detected by audiometry, and loudness of tinnitus was screened by tinnitus match test.
    A decrease in tinnitus loudness by at least 10 dB was accepted as clinically favorable progress. A decrease of more than 1 point in subjective tinnitus scoring was accepted as valid.
    Clinically favorable progress was detected in 46.4% of patients given zinc. Although this decrease was not statistically significant, the severity of subjective tinnitus decreased in 82% of the patients receiving zinc.
    The mean of subjective tinnitus decreased from 5.25 +/- 1.08 to 2.82 +/- 1.81 (<0.001). However, the decrease in severity of the tinnitus was not significant in patients receiving placebo.
    • It can be concluded that patients with tinnitus may have low blood zinc levels (31%) and clinical and subjective improvement can be achieved by oral zinc medication.
    However, it remains to be seen whether the longer duration of treatment has more significant results.
    Otol Neurotol. 2003 Jan;24(1):86-9. PMID: 12544035

  • [15] Effect of zinc supplementation on growth and body composition in children with sickle cell disease (anemia).
    Poor growth and delayed maturation in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) may be due, in part, to mild zinc deficiency.
    The objective was to determine the effects of zinc supplementation on growth and body composition in children with SCD.
    After 12 mo, the zinc group had significantly greater mean (+/- SE) increases in height (0.66 +/- 0.29 cm/y), sitting height (0.97 +/- 0.40 cm/y), knee height (3.8 +/- 1.2 mm/y), and arm circumference z scores (0.27 +/- 0.12 cm/y).
    Height-for-age and weight-for-age z scores decreased significantly by 0.11 +/- 0.04 and 0.13 +/- 0.05, respectively, in the control group but did not change significantly in the zinc group.
    Prepubertal children with SCD-SS may have zinc deficiency and may benefit from zinc supplementation to improve linear growth and weight gain.
    PMID: 11815322 DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/75.2.300

  • [16] Reduced Serum Zinc Ion Concentration Is Associated with Coronary Heart Disease.
    Imbalances in trace element concentrations in the blood as a result of poor nutrition may affect the development of coronary heart disease.
    The results revealed that non-smoking, aging (especially postmenopausal women), and low blood zinc concentrations were independent risk factors for the development of coronary heart disease (P ≤ 0.05, zinc ion concentration less than 13.82 ± 2.91).
    • The findings strongly suggest that decreased zinc ion concentrations in the peripheral blood can be used as an independent risk factor for the prediction of coronary heart disease, especially in older patients, non-smokers, and women, in particular, postmenopausal women.
    Biol Trace Elem Res. 2021 Jan 2. Epub 2021 Jan 2. PMID: 33387273

  • [17] Survival of Laryngeal Cancer Patients Depending on Zinc Serum Level and Oxidative Stress Genotypes.
    Stress contributes to various aspects of malignancy and could influence survival in laryngeal cancer patients. Among antioxidant mechanisms, zinc and the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase 2, catalase and glutathione peroxidase 1 play a major role.
    The study group consisted of 300 patients treated surgically for laryngeal cancer. Serum zinc levels and common polymorphisms in, and were analyzed.
    The risk of death in patients with the lowest zinc levels was increased in comparison with patients with the highest levels.
    Polymorphisms (alternative phenotypes) of antioxidant genes by themselves were not correlated with survival, however, serum zinc level impact on survival was stronger for and variants.
    In conclusion, serum zinc concentration appears to be an important prognostic factor for survival of patients diagnosed with laryngeal cancer.
    When higher zinc levels were correlated with polymorphisms in and a further increase in survival was observed.
    Biomolecules. 2021 06 10 ;11(6). Epub 2021 Jun 10. PMID: 34200699

  • [18] Serum zinc levels in celiac disease.
    This study was done to determine the zinc levels in 30 children with celiac disease. Serum zinc level was estimated at inclusion and zinc supplementation was given for 3 months.
    Zinc levels were repeated at 3 and 6 months after inclusion.
    The serum zinc levels of newly diagnosed CD cases (0.64+/-0.34 microg/mL) versus controls (0.94+/-0.14 microg/mL) were significantly lower (95% CI -0.44 to -1.4), whereas in the old cases this difference was non-significant.
    The serum zinc level among severely malnourished and stunted celiac cases was also significantly lower irrespective of their treatment status.
    We conclude that serum zinc levels are low in newly diagnosed and severely malnourished children with celiac disease.
    Indian Pediatr. 2008 Apr;45(4):319-21. PMID: 18451454

  • [19] Serum zinc levels in seborrheic dermatitis: a case-control study
    Zinc, an essential element, is involved in many biological processes including the ones that contribute to the development of SD. The aim of this study is to evaluate serum zinc levels in patients with SD.
    Statistically significantly lower serum zinc levels were noted in SD patients than in the control group (79.16± 12.17 vs. 84.88 ± 13.59, respectively; P = 0.045).
    The results of the study demonstrated that patients who had SD had lower levels of serum zinc levels than healthy subjects.
    Turk J Med Sci. 2019 Oct 24 ;49(5):1503-1508. Epub 2019 Oct 24. PMID: 31651121

  • [20] Thyroid Hormone Indices in Computer Workers with Emphasis on the Role of Zinc Supplementation.
    This study aimed to investigate the effects of computer monitor-emitted radiation on thyroid hormones and the possible protective role of zinc supplementation.
    TSH (Thyroid stimulating hormone), FT3, FT4 and zinc concentrations were decreased significantly in group B relative to group C.
    In group A, all tested parameters were improved when compared with group B.
    The obtained results revealed that radiation emitted from computers led to changes in TSH and thyroid hormones (FT3 and FT4) in the workers.
    Improvement after supplementation suggests that zinc can ameliorate hazards of such radiation on thyroid hormone indices.

  • [21] Relationship between serum zinc levels, thyroid hormones and thyroid volume following successful iodine supplementation.
    Zinc is essential for many biochemical processes and also for cell proliferation. Thyroid hormones influence zinc metabolism by affecting zinc absorption and excretion. Additionally, zinc deficiency affects thyroid function.
    In patients with normal thyroid, zinc levels were significantly positively correlated with free T3 levels (p<0.001).
    In the nodular goitre group, thyroid volume was negatively correlated with TSH and circulating zinc levels (p=0.014 and p=0.045, respectively).
    In the AITD group, thyroid autoantibodies and zinc were significantly positively correlated.
    Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant relationship between thyroid volume and zinc only in the patients with nodular goitre (p=0.043).
    There was significant correlation of serum zinc levels with thyroid volume in nodular goitre patients, with thyroid autoantibodies in AITD and with free T3 in patients with normal thyroid.
    Hormones (Athens). 2010 Jul-Sep;9(3):263-8. PMID: 20688624

  • [22] Zinc Supplementation Reduces Common Cold Duration among Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials with Micronutrients Supplementation.
    The common cold had resulted in significant economic and social burden worldwide. The effect of vitamin C on preventing common cold in healthy adults has been investigated extensively, but not that of other micronutrients.
    The review found that micronutrients supplementation, except vitamin C, may not prevent cold incidence or reduce symptom severity among healthy adults.
    However, zinc supplementation was observed to potentially reduce cold duration by 2.25 days (when zinc is provided singly, 95% CI: -3.39, -1.12).
    This suggests that zinc supplementation may reduce the overall burden due to common cold among healthy adults.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Apr 27. Epub 2020 Apr 27. PMID: 32342851

  • [23] Major reduction of malaria morbidity with combined vitamin A and zinc supplementation in young children in Burkina Faso: a randomized double blind trial.
    Vitamin A and zinc are crucial for normal immune function, and may play a synergistic role for reducing the risk of infection including malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum.
    A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a single dose of 200 000 IU of vitamin A with daily zinc supplementation was done in children of Sourkoudougou village, Burkina Faso.
    At the end of the study we observed a significant decrease in the prevalence malaria in the supplemented group (34%) compared to the placebo group (3.5%) (p < 0.001).
    Malaria episodes were lower in the supplemented group (p = 0.029), with a 30.2% reduction of malaria cases (p = 0.025).
    Time to first malaria episode was longer in the supplemented group (p = 0.015).
    The supplemented group also had 22% fewer fever episodes than the placebo group (p = 0.030).
    These results suggest that combined vitamin A plus zinc supplementation reduces the risk of fever and clinical malaria episodes among children, and thus may play a key role in malaria control strategies for children in Africa.
    Nutr J. 2008 Jan 31;7:7. PMID: 18237394

  • [24] Reduced zinc and copper in the retinal pigment epithelium and choroid in age-related macular degeneration.
    Reduced RPE (retinal pigment epithelium) and choroid complex zinc and copper levels in AMD (age-related macular degeneration) eyes combined with previous information that oral supplementation of zinc plus copper reduces the risk of progression of AMD suggests that metal homeostasis plays a role in AMD and in retinal health.
    Am J Ophthalmol. 2009 Feb;147(2):276-282.e1. Epub 2008 Oct 9. PMID: 18848316

  • [25] Zinc and vitamin C deficiencies associate with poor pulmonary function in children with persistent asthma.
    One of the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in asthma is the increase in oxidative stress. Zinc (Zn), vitamin C (VC), and vitamin E (VE) have antioxidant functions.
    There were 76 asthmatic children in this study. Seventy-two participants had high oxidative stress.
    All participants had Zn deficiency.
    Nearly 40% of participants had VC deficiency.
    VC deficiency was associated with severe asthma and airway obstruction.
    Plasma Zn concentrations were positively correlated with FEV₁ (r = 0.27) and FEV₁/FVC ratio (r = 0.65).
    Deficiency of Zn and/or VC was related to severe asthma and decreased pulmonary function. Nutrition assessment and management should be considered to alleviate asthma burden.
    PMID: 33274952 DOI: 10.12932/AP-100620-0878

  • [26] Zinc Deficiency Is Associated with Anemia Among Children Under 24 Months-of-age in Rural Guatemala
    Results: Prevalence of anemia was 56% in infants and 12% in preschoolers. Among anemic infants/preschoolers, rates of iron, zinc, folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies were 83/75%; 63/18%; 3/4%; and 9/0%, respectively. For infants, the odds of anemia were higher when children were zinc deficient [OR = 3.59;95%CI (1.64-7.85)]
    Iron and zinc are common micronutrient deficiencies in children from low- and middle-income countries.
    These findings suggest that micronutrient deficiencies coexist among children in Guatemala, and that zinc should be considered as part of the prevention strategies to reduce anemia.
    Curr Dev Nutr. 2019 Jun ;3(Suppl 1). Epub 2019 Jun 13. PMID: 31225086

  • [27] Potential effects of zinc on information processing in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
    28 boys with ADHD were divided into two groups according to plasma zinc levels: low zinc group (N=13, zinc level <80 microg/dL) and zinc non-deficient group (N=15, zinc level >or=80 microg/dL).
    The plasma zinc levels were significantly lower in both ADHD groups (means are 65.8 microg/dL in low zinc group and 89.5 microg/dL in zinc non-deficient group) than controls (mean: 107.8 microg/dL; both p values <0.017).
    These results can suggest that plasma zinc levels might have an effect on information processing in ADHD children, and lower zinc levels seem to affect N2 wave.
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Apr 1;32(3):662-7. Epub 2007 Nov 17. PMID: 18083281

  • [28] Zinc and Copper Levels in Severe Heart Failure and the Effects of Atrial Fibrillation on the Zinc and Copper Status.
    Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure (CHF).
    Some trace elements serve as antioxidant defenses.
    In patients with advanced CHF, irrespective of the rhythm, profound hypozincemia (low Zinc levels), and a decreased Zn/Cu ratio were present, which could be secondary to the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and CHF medications.
    The results suggest the need for more studies focusing on possible benefits with Zn nutriceutical replacement in patients with advanced CHF.
    Int J Oncol. 2008 May;32(5):1085-90. PMID: 21258970

  • [29] The effect of exhaustion exercise on thyroid hormones and testosterone levels of elite athletes receiving oral zinc.
    OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to investigate how exhaustion exercise affects thyroid hormones and testosterone levels in elite athletes who are supplemented with oral zinc sulfate for 4 weeks.
    All subjects were supplemented with oral zinc sulfate (3 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks in addition to their normal diet.
    Both resting and exhaustion total and free testosterone levels following 4-week zinc supplementation were found significantly higher than the levels (both resting and exhaustion) measured before zinc supplementation (p<0.05).
    Findings of our study demonstrate that exhaustion exercise led to a significant inhibition of both thyroid hormones and testosterone concentrations, but that 4-week zinc supplementation prevented this inhibition in wrestlers.
    In conclusion, physiological doses of zinc administration may benefit performance.

    Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2006 Feb-Apr;27(1-2):247-52. PMID: 16648789

  • [30] Zinc status and serum testosterone levels of healthy adults.
    Zinc deficiency is prevalent throughout the world, including the USA. Severe and moderate deficiency of zinc is associated with hypogonadism (reduced Testicle performance; not producing enough Sperm & Testosterone) in men.
    Dietary zinc restriction in normal young men was associated with a significant decrease in serum testosterone concentrations after 20 weeks of zinc restriction (baseline versus post-zinc restriction mean +/- SD, 39.9 +/- 7.1 versus 10.6 +/- 3.6 nmol/L, respectively; p = 0.005).
    Zinc supplementation of marginally zinc-deficient normal elderly men for six months resulted in an increase in serum testosterone from 8.3 +/- 6.3 to 16.0 +/- 4.4 nmol/L (p = 0.02).
    We conclude that zinc may play an important role in modulating serum testosterone levels in normal men.
    Nutrition. 1996 May;12(5):344-8. PMID: 8875519

  • [31] Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of zinc sulfate in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
    The most commonly used medications for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are the psychostimulants.
    Patients with a primary DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD (N=400; 72 girls, 328 boys, mean age=9.61+/-1.7) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to 12 weeks of double-blind treatment with zinc sulfate (n=202) (150 mg/day) or placebo (n=198).
    Zinc sulfate was statistically superior to placebo in reducing both hyperactive, impulsive and impaired socialization symptoms, but not in reducing attention deficiency symptoms, as assessed by ADHDS.
    However, full therapeutic response rates of the zinc and placebo groups remained 28.7% and 20%, respectively.
    It was determined that the hyperactivity, impulsivity and socialization scores displayed significant decrease in patients of older age and high BMI score with low zinc and free fatty acids (FFA) levels.
    Zinc sulfate was well tolerated and associated with a low rate of side effect.
    Zinc monotherapy was significantly superior to placebo in reducing symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity and impaired socialization in patients with ADHD.
    Although by themselves, these findings may not be sufficient, it may well be considered that zinc treatment appears to be an efficacious treatment for ADHD patients having older age and high BMI score with low zinc and FFA levels.
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Jan;28(1):181-90. PMID: 14687872

  • [32] The effect of therapeutic zinc supplementation among young children with selected infections: a review of the evidence.
    Zinc deficiency is now widely recognized as a leading risk factor for morbidity and mortality and is estimated to be responsible for approximately 800,000 excess deaths annually among children under 5 years of age.
    To evaluate the impact of zinc supplementation as an adjunct in the treatment of diarrhea, pneumonia, malaria, and tuberculosis in children under 5 years of age.
    Current analysis of the adjunctive therapeutic benefit of zinc in acute diarrhea corroborates existing reviews and provides evidence of reduction in the duration of acute diarrhea by 0.5 day (p = .002) in children under 5 years of age.
    However, zinc supplementation is found to have no beneficial impact in infants under 6 months of age.
    A beneficial effect of zinc as an adjunctive treatment is also found in persistent diarrhea, the duration of which is reduced by 0.68 day (p < .0001).
    Evidence of the benefit of zinc supplementation in pneumonia and malaria is insufficient, whereas no studies are available in children with tuberculosis. CONCLUSIONS:
    The existing literature provides evidence of a beneficial effect of therapeutic zinc supplementation in the reduction of the duration of acute and persistent diarrhea. However, evidence for its impact on pneumonia, malaria, and tuberculosis in children under 5 years of age is insufficient and needs further evaluation.
    Food Nutr Bull. 2009 Mar;30(1 Suppl):S41-59. PMID: 19472601

  • [33] A randomized controlled trial of zinc supplementation in the treatment of acute respiratory tract infection in Thai children.Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infections (ALRI) are one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in young children. Zinc supplementation has been shown to have a preventive effect against respiratory infections, but little evidence is available on its effect on the treatment of ALRI.
    Children were randomly allocated to receive zinc (30 mg elemental zinc/day) or placebo.
    The study found that ALRI cessation was faster in children who received zinc supplementation (median (IQR): 3 (2-4) days and 4 (3-5) days, respectively; P=0.008), and that their hospital stay was shorter (mean (SD): 3.8 (1.3) days and 6.1 (3.2) days, respectively; P<0.001) than the placebo group.
    Zinc supplementation was well-tolerated, and no adverse events were reported.
    In conclusion, zinc supplementation reduced the number of days of ALRI in Thai children, as well as their stay in hospital.
    Pediatr Rep. 2019 May 23 ;11(2):7954. Epub 2019 May 23. PMID: 31214301

  • [34] The effects of zinc supplementation on serum zinc, alkaline phosphatase activity and fracture healing of bones.
    To determine the effect of zinc supplementation on callus formation, serum zinc and alkaline phosphatase activity in humans.
    The administration of zinc caused a significant elevation of serum zinc and alkaline phosphatase activity.
    Assessment of bone x- rays showed a significant progress in callus formation in cases compared to the controls.
    This study shows that zinc supplementation can stimulate fracture healing, however, it needs further study.
    Saudi Med J. 2008 Sep;29(9):1276-9. PMID: 18813411

  • [35] Effects of zinc status on age-related T cell dysfunction and chronic inflammation.
    Age-related T cell dysfunction contributes to immunosenescence and chronic inflammation. Aging is also associated with a progressive decline in zinc status. Zinc is an essential micronutrient critical for immune function. A significant portion of the older populations are at risk for marginal zinc deficiency.
    Our data suggest that zinc deficiency is an important contributing factor in immune aging, and improving zinc status can in part reverse immune dysfunction and reduce chronic inflammation associated with aging.
    Biometals. 2021 Jan 3. Epub 2021 Jan 3. PMID: 33392795

  • [36] Effects of zinc supplementation on sexual behavior of male rats.
    Effects of zinc on male sexual competence are poorly understood. Aim: To study the effects of different doses of zinc on the sexual competence of males using a rat model.
    Supplementation of 5 mg of zinc/day for two weeks led to a prolongation of ejaculatory latency; 711.6 sec. (SEM 85.47) vs. 489.50 sec. (SEM 67.66), P<0.05 and an increase in number of penile thrusting; 52.80 (SEM 11.28) vs. 26.50 (SEM 6.17), P<0.05, compared to controls.
    Zinc therapy improves sexual competence of male rats; the effect is dose dependent.
    Increase in the T levels is beneficial in this regard.

    J Hum Reprod Sci. 2009 Jul;2(2):57-61. PMID: 19881149

  • [37] Zinc as an anti-tumor agent in prostate cancer and in other cancers.
    Human prostate glandular epithelial cells have the unique capability of accumulating high levels of zinc. This is essential to inhibit m-aconitase activity so that citrate can accumulate for secretion into prostatic fluid, which is a major function of the prostate gland.
    The ability of prostate cells to accumulate zinc is due to the expression and activity of the zinc uptake transporter, ZIP1.
    To avoid the anti-tumor effects of zinc, in prostate cancer the malignant prostate cells exhibit a silencing of ZIP1 gene expression accompanied by a depletion of cellular zinc.
    Therefore we regard ZIP1 as a tumor suppressor gene in prostate cancer.
    In addition to prostate cells, similar tumor suppressor effects of zinc have been identified in several other types of tumors.
    Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007 Jul 15;463(2):211-7. Epub 2007 Mar 16. PMID: 17400177

  • [38] Essential role of vitamin C and zinc in child immunity and health.
    Data from several countries in Asia and Latin America indicate that deficiencies of vitamin C and zinc continue to be at alarming levels.
    Overall, there is increasing evidence that deficiency of vitamin C and zinc adversely affects the physical and mental growth of children and can impair their immune defences.
    Nutrition should be the main vehicle for providing these essential nutrients; however, supplementation can represent a valid support method, especially in developing regions.
    J Int Med Res. 2010 Mar-Apr;38(2):386-414. PMID: 20515554

  • [39] Cost effectiveness analysis of strategies for child health in developing countries.
    To determine the costs and effectiveness of selected child health interventions-namely, case management of pneumonia, oral rehydration therapy, supplementation or fortification of staple foods with vitamin A or zinc, provision of supplementary food with counselling on nutrition
    Cost effectiveness ratios clustered in three groups, with fortification with zinc or vitamin A as the most cost effective intervention, and provision of supplementary food and counselling on nutrition as the least cost effective.
    Between these were oral rehydration therapy, case management of pneumonia, vitamin A or zinc supplementation
    BMJ. 2005 Nov 19 ;331(7526):1177. Epub 2005 Nov 10. PMID: 16282378

  • [40] Zinc, metallothioneins and longevity: interrelationships with niacin and selenium.
    Ageing is an inevitable biological process with gradual and spontaneous biochemical and physiological changes and increased susceptibility to diseases. Some nutritional factors (zinc, niacin, selenium) may remodel these changes leading to a possible escaping of diseases, with the consequence of healthy ageing, because they are involved in improving immune functions, metabolic homeostasis and antioxidant defence.
    Improved immune performance, metabolic homeostasis, antioxidant defence occur in elderly after physiological zinc supplementation, which also induces prolonged survival in old, nude and neonatal thymectomized mice.
    The association "zinc plus selenium" improves humoral immunity in old subjects after influenza vaccination.
    Curr Pharm Des. 2008;14(26):2719-32. PMID: 18991691

  • [41] Zinc-binding proteins (metallothionein and alpha-2 macroglobulin) and immunosenescence.
    Zinc is a relevant trace element for the efficiency of the entire immune system. The binding of zinc with some proteins, such as metallothioneins (MT) and alpha-2 macroglobulin (alpha-2M) is crucial for the immune efficiency during ageing and in age-related diseases, because these proteins may be involved in antagonistic pleiotropic effects.
    Physiological zinc supplementation in elderly restores the thymic endocrine activity and innate immune response (NK cell cytotoxicity) and increases the survival rate in old mice.
    Therefore, zinc supplementation is useful to achieve health longevity because these zinc-binding proteins may regain their original protective task against oxidative damage with, thus, a beneficial impact on immune response.
    Exp Gerontol. 2006 Nov;41(11):1094-107. Epub 2006 Oct 9. PMID: 17030107

  • [42] Zinc Promotes Osteoblast Differentiation in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells via Activation of the cAMP-PKA-CREB Signaling Pathway.
    The crucial trace element zinc stimulates osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo.
    Our results suggest that zinc exerts osteogenic effects in hBMSCs by activation of RUNX2 via the cAMP-PKA-CREB signaling pathway.
    Zinc supplementation may offer a promise as a potential pharmaceutical therapy for osteoporosis and other bone loss conditions.
    Stem Cells Dev. 2018 May 31. Epub 2018 May 31. PMID: 29848179

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